Permaculture is a form of sustainable farming that has been used since the 1970s. Scared by the oil crisis, this form of farming is modeled from natural ecosystems and uses its own systems with these purposes in mind: to protect the Earth and all its inhabitants; ensure people have sufficient resources; and to help govern our needs in order to protect future populations by recycling, reusing and regenerating.
This form of farming has design in mind. It uses the synergy between different forms to make them work at their best by using the natural relationship between each element. They also work to minimize waste, human labour and energy systems, all the while maintaining a high production of food.
Although permaculture is not organic gardening per se, it is a natural form of improvement for any type of farming that wishes to maximise results with minimal space, thus reducing its impact on the environment. By keeping the methods as natural as possible, we are creating a system that is sustainable and offers the possibility to ensure future generations will be able to use it for a very long time.
In nature, when a plant dies, it naturally becomes the fertilizer for the others around it. This is how permaculture works: natural food waste is turned into compost and natural predators are used instead of pesticides and herbicides. Working with nature, and not against it, is the key to sustainably farming almost any area you can think of. So, of course, the first step is to understand how the sun works around the area where you wish to plant as well as looking for the right shading and wind control. Observation of how nature does this without human intervention is the best way to learn.
Diversity is another key aspect of permaculture. In nature, plants do not learn to live on their own, which is why monocultures are frowned upon. Coffee plants, for example, thrive in the shade whereas banana plants prefer being close to the sun, hence the reason for their respective heights and the reason why many coffee farmers (those not using monocultures, that is) plant their coffee trees with banana plants surrounding them. Or, if you want to learn how to deter certain insects from your plants without using pesticides, learn which repel the bugs you need to get rid of, such as marigolds.
This is but a drop in the vast array of information about permaculture. It could be the perfect addition to your organic garden.